21.10.2010 carla duschka

We cannot know for sure how the first written media looked. But we can imagine how the first paper did look like. It definitely had frayed edges, it was man-made entirely, and its fiber was not orderly. Why is it still made today?
Paper craft appeared in Europe, in the first half of the XI-th century, first in Spain, then it spread to Italy, France, Germany, etc. Fabriano, Arches or Hahnemühle - large contemporary artistic paper producers, who owned the very first european paper mills, started out by making writing paper. 

As a result of the emergence of the printing press, the book demand grew extensively and determined a constant perfecting of the old paper making techniques, but, at the same time, the industrial revolution  triggered the development of modern means of obtaining this medium. So, today we have three types of paper, based on the way they were produced: handmade paper (in German echt Büttenpapier) every sheet being individually handmade, by traditional methods; mouldmade paper (Büttenpapier), developed in a machine, a cylinder-mould (Rundsieb), that shares many characteristics with handmade paper, therefor its name; industrially produced paper, the greater part of today's paper.

In time, a mechanical process evolved, that reproduces all the stages of making paper by hand. It's the cylinder-mould, that we mentioned before, a largely employed method, used by all the large companies in the world, and it produces a paper also named hand-made paper. The edges are most of times frayed, but the paper is more homogenous in composition, more leveled, more straight as a surface, more exact as weight. In this case, the procedure refined even more and traditional producers, like Hahnemühle, Twinrocker or Zerkall specialized in producing specific paper for different artistic techniques, including photography and print. The Book of Fine Paper by Silvie Turner, released in 1998 at London's Thames&Hudson, is an excellent work that approaches orderly and in detail this universe of beautiful paper. The buyer must know and understand it, in order to choose de media he needs. The quality of the final work and the way it will be received very much depends on this choice, because, in the end, "design" means physical contact with the audience and its reactions.

It remains a craft that demands the best cellulose, a long time compared to today's time, genuine hand-made paper has become rare, expensive, dedicated only to the artistic domain and, for books,  to the deluxe editions.

The characteristics of handmade paper are edges that are frayed and more transparent due to the fabrication process, uneven surface with different structures (influenced also by different elements - leaves or flowers, which can be integrated), natural tones of color, and the fact that it is never perfectly straight (due mostly to the drying process), and certainly, not least, filigree. The chaotic intertwining of fibers allows for great flexibility, so the paper can be bended in any way, unlike the industrial mass-produced one, whose fiber tends to align to the production lane, and the finished paper is either parallel or perpendicular with this direction (vital to the way it is meant to be folded afterwards).


Beyond these visible aspects, the compounds of paper are very important, they are not treated chemically in any way, which in time, can shorten its life or change its color, it is without acid or woody content and without bleaches; the raw matter is preferably cotton or linen, both flexible and durable. Thus, paper maintains its initial characteristics for a longer time, being the preferred choice for artists. Vincze Laszlo and Sons mill from Hungary is specialized in producing hand-made paper.



Handmade paper - every sheet forms when the cylinder is lifted from the water and fiber mix; that is how the fiber arranges on the cylinder, except on the edges, the reason why they are frayed and a little transparent, which can be observed when faced against light.
Cellulose - the raw material from which paper is produced, is the main area of the plant's cellular walls. The fibers are not pure enough, except for cotton. Certain substances, like ligain, must be removed before proceeding to  manufacture.
Filigree - a translucent area observed against light that forms a name, a signature, an image, a logo. Filigree has a long tradition, initiated probably by Faberlano, in Italy. Liniar filigree is born by fixing a wired shaped mirror image; a small bump is formed that allows the positioning of a smaller quantity of fiber, portion in which paper will be thinner and transparent. There is also the chiaroscuro method (used on bills for example), where the shape is formed due to the association of light and dark tones.

The terms are explained in The Book of Fine Paper by Silvie Turner
Büttenpapier ABC - www.zerkall.com
www.hahnemuhle.com


carla duschkaattended the graphic arts department at the University of Arts Bucharest and studied book design at the Weissensee Kunsthochschule Berlin. She works as a graphic designer at Atelierul de grafica Bucharest and is assistant lecturer at theUniversity of Arts. CD is co-founder of the GF project.
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Jast Tily

15.10.2010 la 12:54

deduc ca: treaba-i chitibusara tare .. cat si nervii periferici vizio - tactili .. trecute prin ficatul filtrului tehnic din dotare ... ca nimerind gradul ph-ului agentului impregnant ..sa intre in cursa pt cei.. cel putin.. 100 de ani.. da, f.interesant!

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george

16.10.2010 la 17:41

delicata si cand e vorba de cantitati,sensibila si la volum, ma pliez,al dvs,G.T.

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metodie

22.10.2010 la 16:15

Vor fi si articole despre alte materiale, sau numai despre hartie si materialele conexe graficii?
multumesc

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